An aortic dissection is pretty much what it sounds like: a tear in the artery. An aortic dissection results from trauma or a tear that occurs in the inner layer of the aortic wall, resulting in bleeding into the wall of the aorta, and has a high mortality rate. Aortic dissection is twice as common as the second most common serious risk to the aorta, the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Still, many patients survive both an abdominal aortic aneurysm and an aortic dissection, particularly when the doctor spots the problem before they blow the aorta open. But, all too frequently, aortic dissections are missed and lead to wrongful death medical malpractice lawsuits.
Our lawyers handle these cases. If you think you have a potential wrongful death medical malpractice claim for someone you loved because the ER doctor or another doctor failed to diagnose an aortic dissection, call 800-553-8082 to discuss your potential malpractice case or get a free online case evaluation.How Do Aortic Dissections Occur?
Aneurysms are slow to develop, taking years, and are often asymptomatic (without symptoms). Symptoms may develop suddenly if an aneurysm ruptures (tears open). Symptoms of rupture include severe, sudden or constant pain in the abdomen or back that may radiate to the groin, legs or buttocks; clammy skin; nausea; vomiting; rapid heart rate; and shock.Types of Dissections and Risk Factors
Aortic dissection is the most common emergency involving the aorta, and most commonly occurs in patients aged 50 to 70 years. Prevalence of aortic dissection is estimated to be approximately 2 in 10,000 people. Though rare in children, it has been associated with coarctation of the aorta (a congenital birth defect).
Aortic dissection may be classified using the Stanford classification as Type A (beginning in the ascending part of the aorta, DeBakey type I or II) or Type B (beginning in the descending part of the aorta, DeBakey type III). The DeBakey classification system is as follows:
- Type I: aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta (30%).
- Type II: ascending aorta only (20%).
- Type III: descending aorta distal to left subclavian (50%).
Though the exact cause of aortic dissection is not currently known, several risk factors, both congenital and acquired, have been identified including:
- Bicuspid aortic valve
- Coarctation (narrowing) of the aorta
- Connective tissue disorders
- Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
- Heart surgery or procedures
- High blood pressure (80% of patients having an aortic dissection have high blood pressure)
- Marfan syndrome
- Pregnancy (approximately 50% of all cases of aortic in women <40 years are associated with pregnancy, most occurring in the third trimester or early postpartum)
- Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
- Trauma (blunt chest trauma, i.e. hitting the steering wheel of a car during a car accident)
- Vascular inflammation resulting from conditions such as arteritis and syphilis
No doubt, diagnosis of an aortic dissection is the big leagues: incompetent doctors are not going to catch it. Putting the risk Getting it right requires a high degree of suspicion as symptoms can vary. Good patient medical history and physical examinations in addition to ECG (electrocardiography), imaging, and laboratory studies is key in diagnosing aortic dissection. Symptoms are usually sudden and include severe chest pain.
The pain may be sharp, stabbing, ripping or tearing, and felt below the chest bone, then moving to the back or under the shoulder blades, shoulder, neck, jaw, or abdomen. As the aortic dissection rupture worsens, the pain may move to the arms and legs. Besides pain, patients may experience confusion or disorientation, dizziness, fainting, nausea and vomiting, sweating, decreased movement or sensation in other parts of the body, dry mouth or skin, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing when lying flat, or a rapid or weak pulse. Other symptoms include low blood pressure, or variation between blood pressure measurements between left and right arms and legs. Aortic dissections may be evident through aortic angiography, chest x-rays, MRI, CT scan, echocardiogram or ultrasonography.
Quick diagnosis is imperative to reduce the risk of mortality as the risk of death increases with each passing hour. It is of great concern that 20% of patients may die before reaching the hospital, and diagnosis is not made until autopsy in 15% of all cases. In the absence of surgery, 80% of patients will die within two weeks and 40% within 24 hours. Although surgery can result in an 80% chance of survival, aortic surgery comes with a risk of mortality in the region of 25%.
The findings of a study published in the American Journal of Cardiology indicate that in practice, acute aortic syndrome (AAS), which includes acute aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating ulcer of the aorta, is often confused with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), which includes myocardial infarction, resulting in delayed diagnosis.
Further this confusion results in inappropriate treatment such as anti-platelet, anti-thrombin, or fibrinolytic therapy. Exposing a patient with aortic dissection to such therapies can result in hemodynamic instability among other problems. Hemodynamic instability prior to surgery for aortic dissection has been associated with negative outcomes. Use of fibrinolytics in patients with aortic dissection can lead to severe hemorrhagic complications and result in an estimated mortality rate of 71%, similar to the mortality rate if left untreated.
In another study published in 2011 in the Journal of Cardiology, 109 emergency room patients who were eventually diagnosed with aortic dissection were examined. The failure to diagnose aortic dissection occurred in 16% of patients admitted to the emergency room. Other studies have estimated the rate of misdiagnosis of aortic dissection to be closer to 25-31% and is most commonly misdiagnosed as myocardial infarction.
The lack of or incomplete capture of medical history in the emergency room can lead to misdiagnosis. Clinical examination and chest radiography alone are insufficient to make a diagnosis of aortic dissection. Further, no specific blood tests are available, though there are some markers that have recently shown some early promise. These challenges coupled with the fact that emergency departments see more patients presenting with myocardial infarction compared to those with acute coronary syndrome, in a ratio of nearly 2900:5, often lead to misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment of the patient which can put the patient at further risk for a negative outcome.
Thankfully, mortality rates associated with aortic dissection have been declining since the introduction of cardiopulmonary bypass in the 1950s and aortic arch repair in 1955. Further advances in diagnosis and reparative techniques, including stent placement and percutaneous aortic fenestrations have helped further reduce mortality rates. Although mortality rates have declined in the past 60 years, the rate of mortality still remains high - too high - and can be further improved by timely, correct diagnosis and proper management.Aortic Dissections and Other Medical Malpractice Claims in Maryland
Aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections can usually be treated when properly diagnosed. But they are frequently missed by emergency room and primary care doctors and, too frequently become the subject of a wrongful death medical malpractice claim. If you think you have a potential wrongful death malpractice claim for someone you loved because a doctor misdiagnosed an aortic dissection, call 800-553-8082 to discuss your potential case or get a free no obligation case evaluation.
- Medical malpractice claims in Maryland: an overview
- A look at emergency room malpractice cases in Maryland
- Settlement values of other emergency room malpractice and surgery cases
These mistakes lead to aortic dissection medical mistake lawsuits. This is a sampling of relatively recent plaintiffs' aortic aneurysm verdicts and settlements: